Neonatal Immune System, Respiratory System, and Normal Physiology

In this article, we will discuss the Immune system, Respiratory system, and Normal physiology of the Neonate. The article will also discuss the presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid. A neonate is born with one of two reflexes: the sucking reflex and the rooting reflex. The sucking reflex is triggered by touching the lips of an infant or the nipple of a breast or bottle. The reflex is triggered when a baby first starts to consume nourishment. The food is then swallowed, reaching the back of the tongue.

Normal physiology of a neonate

The physiology of a newborn baby differs greatly from that of an adult or older infant. In fact, most newborn physiology changes are rapid, occurring in a matter of hours. The behaviour of almost every body system changes in a newborn, but in older humans the behaviour is usually predictable within limits. For this reason, the term "normal" is inappropriate for newborns. Instead, a description of the infant's physiology should be based on its developmental history and the state of the individual infant.

Immune system of a neonate

Neonatal immunity is unique because it is highly variable and converges in the first three months after birth along a stereotypical trajectory. Many factors during early life affect the cellular immune system and shape its course throughout life, including environmental factors, exposure to infectious agents, and microbiome colonization. These factors influence vaccine immunity, longevity, and diabetes. In the present review, we review recent advances in mouse neonatal immunity and discuss some recent findings.

Respiratory system of a neonate

A newborn infant's respiratory system is unique. It has a lower functional residual capacity (FRC) and more dead space. It is also less efficient at gas exchange. Neonates breathe through the nose and are therefore obligate nose breathers. This is largely due to the fact that their nasal passages are narrow and receptive to small airways. The newborn's airway features a large tongue, long, floppy omega-shaped epiglottis, narrow glottis, and large arytenoids.

Meconium in amniotic fluid

Meconium is a mixture of amniotic fluid and feces that a newborn passes in the first few days of life. Because it contains no odor or bacteria, it is harmless, but it can be a hazard when a newborn is breathing it. It can also get into the lungs, which is known as meconium aspiration syndrome. This condition is characterized by a yellow stool color and difficulty breathing.

Rooting reflex of a neonate

At the first check-up, your pediatrician will test your baby's rooting reflex. It is one of the first ways to tell if your baby is hungry, and it develops during the womb. You may notice your baby sucking his or her fingers or hands, but the reflex is not fully developed until your baby is 36 weeks old. If you suspect that your baby is premature, you should seek medical help to correct the problem.

Sucking reflex of a neonate

The suckling reflex of a neonate (RS) begins developing during the sixth and eighth months of pregnancy. Its coordination with swallowing occurs in the last two months before full term birth. The suckling reflex may not develop in premature babies. They may need assistance for feeding until the reflex develops. Tube feeding may be necessary to deliver milk to premature babies until they can begin to suck on their own. It may take weeks for the premature infant to gain enough endurance to take all feeds.

Meconium aspiration in a neonate

Meconium aspiration in a newborn is a common medical condition, but if the meconium enters the lungs it can cause serious complications. In severe cases, meconium may even cause an infection in the lungs. In severe cases, doctors may try to instill nitric oxide, which will dilate the blood vessels in the lungs, increasing oxygen levels in the baby's blood.